7. EMANE

This chapter describes running CORE with the EMANE emulator.

7.1. What is EMANE?

The Extendable Mobile Ad-hoc Network Emulator (EMANE) allows heterogeneous network emulation using a pluggable MAC and PHY layer architecture. The EMANE framework provides an implementation architecture for modeling different radio interface types in the form of Network Emulation Modules (NEMs) and incorporating these modules into a real-time emulation running in a distributed environment.

EMANE is developed by U.S. Naval Research Labs (NRL) Code 5522 and Adjacent Link LLC, who maintain these websites:

Instead of building Linux Ethernet bridging networks with CORE, higher-fidelity wireless networks can be emulated using EMANE bound to virtual devices. CORE emulates layers 3 and above (network, session, application) with its virtual network stacks and process space for protocols and applications, while EMANE emulates layers 1 and 2 (physical and data link) using its pluggable PHY and MAC models.

The interface between CORE and EMANE is a TAP device. CORE builds the virtual node using Linux network namespaces, installs the TAP device into the namespace and instantiates one EMANE process in the namespace. The EMANE process binds a user space socket to the TAP device for sending and receiving data from CORE.

Note

When the installed EMANE version is older than 0.9.2, EMANE runs on the host and binds a userspace socket to the TAP device, before it is pushed into the namespace, for sending and receiving data. The Virtual Transport was the EMANE component responsible for connecting with the TAP device.

An EMANE instance sends and receives OTA traffic to and from other EMANE instances via a control port (e.g. ctrl0, ctrl1). It also sends and receives Events to and from the Event Service using the same or a different control port. EMANE models are configured through CORE’s WLAN configuration dialog. A corresponding EmaneModel Python class is sub-classed for each supported EMANE model, to provide configuration items and their mapping to XML files. This way new models can be easily supported. When CORE starts the emulation, it generates the appropriate XML files that specify the EMANE NEM configuration, and launches the EMANE daemons.

Some EMANE models support location information to determine when packets should be dropped. EMANE has an event system where location events are broadcast to all NEMs. CORE can generate these location events when nodes are moved on the canvas. The canvas size and scale dialog has controls for mapping the X,Y coordinate system to a latitude, longitude geographic system that EMANE uses. When specified in the core.conf configuration file, CORE can also subscribe to EMANE location events and move the nodes on the canvas as they are moved in the EMANE emulation. This would occur when an Emulation Script Generator, for example, is running a mobility script.

7.2. EMANE Configuration

CORE and EMANE currently work together only on the Linux network namespaces platform. The normal CORE installation instructions should be followed from Installation.

The CORE configuration file /etc/core/core.conf has options specific to EMANE. Namely, the emane_models line contains a comma-separated list of EMANE models that will be available. Each model has a corresponding Python file containing the EmaneModel subclass. A portion of the default core.conf file is shown below:

# EMANE configuration
emane_platform_port = 8101
emane_transform_port = 8201
emane_event_monitor = False
emane_models = RfPipe, Ieee80211abg

EMANE can be installed from deb or RPM packages or from source. See the EMANE website for full details.

Here are quick instructions for installing all EMANE packages:

# install dependencies
sudo apt-get install libssl-dev libxml-lixbml-perl libxml-simple-perl
# download and install EMANE 0.8.1
export URL=http://downloads.pf.itd.nrl.navy.mil/emane/0.8.1-r2
wget $URL/emane-0.8.1-release-2.ubuntu-12_04.amd64.tgz
tar xzf emane-0.8.1-release-2.ubuntu-12_04.amd64.tgz
sudo dpkg -i emane-0.8.1-release-2/deb/ubuntu-12_04/amd64/*.deb

If you have an EMANE event generator (e.g. mobility or pathloss scripts) and want to have CORE subscribe to EMANE location events, set the following line in the /etc/core/core.conf configuration file:

emane_event_monitor = True

Do not set the above option to True if you want to manually drag nodes around on the canvas to update their location in EMANE.

Another common issue is if installing EMANE from source, the default configure prefix will place the DTD files in /usr/local/share/emane/dtd while CORE expects them in /usr/share/emane/dtd. A symbolic link will fix this:

sudo ln -s /usr/local/share/emane /usr/share/emane

7.3. Single PC with EMANE

This section describes running CORE and EMANE on a single machine. This is the default mode of operation when building an EMANE network with CORE. The OTA manager and Event service interface are set to use ctrl0 and the virtual nodes use the primary control channel for communicating with one another. The primary control channel is automatically activated when a scenario involves EMANE. Using the primary control channel prevents your emulation session from sending multicast traffic on your local network and interfering with other EMANE users.

Note

When the installed EMANE version is earlier than 0.9.2, the OTA manager and Event service interfaces are set to use the loopback device.

EMANE is configured through a WLAN node, because it is all about emulating wireless radio networks. Once a node is linked to a WLAN cloud configured with an EMANE model, the radio interface on that node may also be configured separately (apart from the cloud.)

Double-click on a WLAN node to invoke the WLAN configuration dialog. Click the EMANE tab; when EMANE has been properly installed, EMANE wireless modules should be listed in the EMANE Models list. (You may need to restart the CORE daemon if it was running prior to installing the EMANE Python bindings.) Click on a model name to enable it.

When an EMANE model is selected in the EMANE Models list, clicking on the model options button causes the GUI to query the CORE daemon for configuration items. Each model will have different parameters, refer to the EMANE documentation for an explanation of each item. The defaults values are presented in the dialog. Clicking Apply and Apply again will store the EMANE model selections.

The EMANE options button allows specifying some global parameters for EMANE, some of which are necessary for distributed operation, see Distributed EMANE.

The RF-PIPE and IEEE 802.11abg models use a Universal PHY that supports geographic location information for determining pathloss between nodes. A default latitude and longitude location is provided by CORE and this location-based pathloss is enabled by default; this is the pathloss mode setting for the Universal PHY. Moving a node on the canvas while the emulation is running generates location events for EMANE. To view or change the geographic location or scale of the canvas use the Canvas Size and Scale dialog available from the Canvas menu.

Note that conversion between geographic and Cartesian coordinate systems is done using UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) projection, where different zones of 6 degree longitude bands are defined. The location events generated by CORE may become inaccurate near the zone boundaries for very large scenarios that span multiple UTM zones. It is recommended that EMANE location scripts be used to achieve geo-location accuracy in this situation.

Clicking the green Start button launches the emulation and causes TAP devices to be created in the virtual nodes that are linked to the EMANE WLAN. These devices appear with interface names such as eth0, eth1, etc. The EMANE processes should now be running in each namespace. For a four node scenario:

> ps -aef | grep emane
root  1063 969 0 11:46 ? 00:00:00 emane -d --logl 3 -r -f /tmp/pycore.59992/emane4.log /tmp/pycore.59992/platform4.xml
root  1117 959 0 11:46 ? 00:00:00 emane -d --logl 3 -r -f /tmp/pycore.59992/emane2.log /tmp/pycore.59992/platform2.xml
root  1179 942 0 11:46 ? 00:00:00 emane -d --logl 3 -r -f /tmp/pycore.59992/emane1.log /tmp/pycore.59992/platform1.xml
root  1239 979 0 11:46 ? 00:00:00 emane -d --logl 3 -r -f /tmp/pycore.59992/emane5.log /tmp/pycore.59992/platform5.xml

The example above shows the EMANE processes started by CORE. To view the configuration generated by CORE, look in the /tmp/pycore.nnnnn/ session directory for a platform.xml file and other XML files. One easy way to view this information is by double-clicking one of the virtual nodes, and typing cd .. in the shell to go up to the session directory.

Single PC Emane

Single PC with EMANE

7.4. Distributed EMANE

Running CORE and EMANE distributed among two or more emulation servers is similar to running on a single machine. There are a few key configuration items that need to be set in order to be successful, and those are outlined here.

It is a good idea to maintain separate networks for data (OTA) and control. The control network may be a shared laboratory network, for example, and you do not want multicast traffic on the data network to interfere with other EMANE users. Furthermore, control traffic could interfere with the OTA latency and thoughput and might affect emulation fidelity. The examples described here will use eth0 as a control interface and eth1 as a data interface, although using separate interfaces is not strictly required. Note that these interface names refer to interfaces present on the host machine, not virtual interfaces within a node.

Important

If an auxiliary control network is used, an interface on the host has to be assigned to that network. See Control Network in Distributed Sessions

Each machine that will act as an emulation server needs to have CORE and EMANE installed. Refer to the Distributed Emulation section for configuring CORE.

The IP addresses of the available servers are configured from the CORE emulation servers dialog box (choose Session then Emulation servers...) described in Distributed Emulation. This list of servers is stored in a ~/.core/servers.conf file. The dialog shows available servers, some or all of which may be assigned to nodes on the canvas.

Nodes need to be assigned to emulation servers as described in Distributed Emulation. Select several nodes, right-click them, and choose Assign to and the name of the desired server. When a node is not assigned to any emulation server, it will be emulated locally. The local machine that the GUI connects with is considered the “master” machine, which in turn connects to the other emulation server “slaves”. Public key SSH should be configured from the master to the slaves as mentioned in the Distributed Emulation section.

Under the EMANE tab of the EMANE WLAN, click on the EMANE options button. This brings up the emane configuration dialog. The enable OTA Manager channel should be set to on. The OTA Manager device and Event Service device should be set to a control network device. For example, if you have a primary and auxiliary control network (i.e. controlnet and controlnet1), and you want the OTA traffic to have its dedicated network, set the OTA Manager device to ctrl1 and the Event Service device to ctrl0. The EMANE models can be configured as described in Single PC with EMANE. Click Apply to save these settings.

Distribute EMANE

Distributed EMANE Configuration

Note

When the installed EMANE version is earlier than 0.9.2, EMANE access to the host machine’s interfaces and OTA manager and Event service devices an be set to physical interfaces.

Hint

Here is a quick checklist for distributed emulation with EMANE.

  1. Follow the steps outlined for normal CORE Distributed Emulation.
  2. Under the EMANE tab of the EMANE WLAN, click on EMANE options.
  3. Turn on the OTA Manager channel and set the OTA Manager device. Also set the Event Service device.
  4. Select groups of nodes, right-click them, and assign them to servers using the Assign to menu.
  5. Synchronize your machine’s clocks prior to starting the emulation, using ntp or ptp. Some EMANE models are sensitive to timing.
  6. Press the Start button to launch the distributed emulation.

Now when the Start button is used to instantiate the emulation, the local CORE Python daemon will connect to other emulation servers that have been assigned to nodes. Each server will have its own session directory where the platform.xml file and other EMANE XML files are generated. The NEM IDs are automatically coordinated across servers so there is no overlap. Each server also gets its own Platform ID.

An Ethernet device is used for disseminating multicast EMANE events, as specified in the configure emane dialog. EMANE’s Event Service can be run with mobility or pathloss scripts as described in Single PC with EMANE. If CORE is not subscribed to location events, it will generate them as nodes are moved on the canvas.

Double-clicking on a node during runtime will cause the GUI to attempt to SSH to the emulation server for that node and run an interactive shell. The public key SSH configuration should be tested with all emulation servers prior to starting the emulation.

Distribute EMANE

Notional Distributed EMANE Network Diagram

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